Unemployment

   In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), unemployment, a social “evil” associated with capitalism, was officially declared to be absent in Soviet society, despite clear evidence to the contrary. The right to employment was considered sacrosanct, and failure to work was viewed as a crime against the state. However, perestroika inevitably turned many Soviet citizens out of work, while others came to suffer from chronic underemployment. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the problem was exacerbated as the economy shrunk dramatically, particularly in heavy industry and the public sector. Boris Yeltsin’s combination of rapid privatization and the elimination of mass subsidies quickly led to a rise in joblessness. In 1997, the official statistics registered a rate of 10 percent; however, actual figures were estimated to be much higher. The state’s inability to pay unemployment benefits, combined with wage arrears, proved devastating to the economy; the 1998 ruble crisis only worsened the situation.
   Under Vladimir Putin, the economy improved significantly, mainly thanks to oil and natural gas exports, but also as a result of hitting rock bottom in 1998, after nearly a decade of industrial rationalization. Upon taking office, Putin inherited a country with a joblessness rate of more than 12 percent; by 2002, this had dropped to 8 percent, where it would remain for the next three years. In 2005, unemployment began another period of steady decline, reaching 6.2 percent in 2008. As a result of the 2008–2009 global economic crisis, the rate rose to 8 percent in early 2009. President Dmitry Medvyedev responded by announcing a $1.3 million package to create new jobs and fund retraining programs.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • unemployment — un‧em‧ploy‧ment [ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt] noun [uncountable] 1. when you do not have a job: • Closure of the plant will mean unemployment for 500 workers. • Most of our staff now face unemployment. 2. ECONOMICS the number of people in a country who do not …   Financial and business terms

  • Unemployment — occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequently cited measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate. This is the… …   Investment dictionary

  • Unemployment — Un em*ploy ment, n. Quality or state of being not employed; used esp. in economics, of the condition of various social classes when temporarily thrown out of employment, as those engaged for short periods, those whose trade is decaying, and those …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • unemployment — index disuse, inaction Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • unemployment — 1888, from UN (Cf. un ) (1) “not” + EMPLOYMENT (Cf. employment) …   Etymology dictionary

  • unemployment — ► NOUN 1) the state of being unemployed. 2) the number or proportion of unemployed people …   English terms dictionary

  • unemployment — [un΄emploi′mənt] n. 1. the state of being unemployed; lack of employment 2. the number or percentage of persons in the normal labor force who are out of work …   English World dictionary

  • Unemployment — World unemployment rates[1] as of January 2009[update] Unemployment (or …   Wikipedia

  • unemployment — un|em|ploy|ment W2S2 [ˌʌnımˈplɔımənt] n [U] 1.) the number of people in a particular country or area who cannot get a job ▪ The level of unemployment is rising. ▪ areas of high unemployment (=where many people do not have a job) ▪ The… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • unemployment — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ double digit (esp. AmE), high, huge, mass, massive, severe, widespread ▪ low ▪ grow …   Collocations dictionary

  • unemployment —    At the time of the oil crisis of 1973, unemployment in Spain stood at just under 2.5 percent of the active population, but with the recession, the estimated one million Spanish workers in Europe began to return. This influx coincided with an… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

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